When was the first incident that started the movement of environmental justice?

What was the first environmental justice movement?

The initial environmental justice spark sprang from a Warren County, North Carolina, protest. In 1982, a small, predominately African-American community was designated to host a hazardous waste landfill. This landfill would accept PCB-contaminated soil that resulted from illegal dumping of toxic waste along roadways.

Who started the environmental justice movement?

1. The Definition of Environmental Justice. Although the origin of the environmental justice movement is traced to the passing of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, Robert Bullard’s work entitled Dumping in Dixie published in the 1990’s is considered to be the first book addressing the reality of environmental injustice.

When was environmental justice defined?

Environmental justice emerged as a concept in the United States in the early 1980s. The term has two distinct uses with the more common usage describing a social movement that focuses on the “fair” distribution of environmental benefits and burdens.

What events led to the environmental movement?

The major factors that led to the birth of the environmental movement in the 1970s were the energy crisis, anxiety of nuclear weapons, overpopulation and the three major events that occurred in 1969 such as the offshore drilling rig that spilled millions of gallons of oil off the coast of Santa Barbara.

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What event in 1989 galvanized the environmental movement?

In 1989, the “Exxon Valdez” oil tanker ran aground in Prince William Sound, Alaska. More than 252,000 barrels of oil flowed out, dirtying the coast and killing innumerable marine animals. Aside from raising environmental awareness, it’s served as a warning lesson on the dangers of drilling in the Arctic.

When and where did the first environmental justice protest occur?

In 1968, residents of West Harlem, in New York City, fought unsuccessfully against the siting of a sewage treatment plant in their community. But the Warren County protests marked the first instance of an environmental protest by people of color that garnered widespread national attention.

What is the history of environmental racism?

“Environmental Racism” was coined in 1982 by Benjamin Chavis, previous executive director of the United Church of Christ (UCC) Commission for Racial Justice. Chavis’s speech addressed hazardous polychlorinated biphenyl waste in the Warren County PCB Landfill, North Carolina.

What is environmental justice act?

Summary: The Environmental Justice Act establishes a commission to investigate incidents of environmental racism and coordinate government efforts to ensure that minorities and low-income citizens are not disproportionately subjected to environmental hazards.